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TEST Review for Disorder and Therapy

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MONDAY Test will also cover PERSONALITY

AP Psychology Therapies for Psychological Disorders

                  Test on Monday also includes Personality                    

 

What is Therapy           

Core Concept: Therapy for psychological disorders takes a variety if forms, but all involve some relationship focused on improving a person’s mental, behavioral, or social functioning.

 

Therapy:

 

 

 

Biomedical Therapies :

 

 

 

Psychological Therapies:

 

Most treatments…

1.      Identify the problem

2.      Identify the cause of the problem

3.      Make a prognosis (prediction

4.      Decide upon treatment

 

How do psychologists treat psychological disorders?

Core Concept: Psychologists employ two main forms of treatment

       1. Insight therapies: focused on developing understanding of the problem

       2. Behavior Therapies: focused on changing behavior through conditioning

 

Insight Therapies

Help clients gain an ‘insight’ into their problems   AKA: talk therapies

--Clients communicate and verbalize their emotions and motives to help understand their problems

 

 

Freudian Psychoanalysis: form of psychodynamic therapy …

goal is to release conflicts and memories form the unconscious

  Accomplished through analysis of transference

 

         Analysis of transference:

 

Based on the assumption that this relationship mirrors the unresolved conflicts in the client’s past

 

Traditional Approach…the Old Method

Free Association

Hypnosis

Interpretation of revealed ideas that reflect deep seated feelings and conflicts

Dream Analysis

 

Modern Approach:

Briefer…less intense

Focus on revealing unconscious material

Client/therapist sit face to face…no client on the couch

Usually more focus on ego…less on id

Therapist is directive

 

 

 

 

 

Neo-Freudian Psychodynamic Therapies:   Emphasize the client’s conscious motivation and the influence of past childhood

--Relationships are more important that in traditional psychoanalysis

 

****************************************************************

 

Humanistic Therapies: Treatments based on the assumption that people have the tendency for positive

      growth and self-actualization, ……..

     ….which may have been blocked by an unhealthy environment that can include negative self-evaluation

           and criticism from others

 

Client Centered Therapy:

 

 

       Humanistic approach developed by Carl Rogers

        Focuses on an individual’s tendency for healthy psychological growth through self-actualization

        Main techniques is reflection of feeling, as are empathy, genuineness, unconditional positive

              regard

 

Reflection of Feeling:

 

 

 Group Therapy:

 

      Advantages: economical, support of group, non-threatening atmosphere, provides more information and

         life experiences for clients to draw upon.

 

    Self-Help Support Groups:     type of group therapy            Example: Alcoholics Anonymous

 

Gestalt Therapy

    Originated by Fritz Peris

    Approach assumes people disown parts of themselves and wear ‘social masks’

   Goal is to integrate conflicting parts of their personality

   Highly directive

  Found not to be very effective

 

****************************************************************

Behavior Therapies

 

Behavior Therapy/Modification:  Any therapy based upon behavioral learning (especially

      Classical and Operant) 

     --Including….

 Classical Conditioning Therapies

 

Systemic Desensitization:

 

 

Exposure Therapy:

 

 

Aversion Therapy:

 

Operant Conditioning Therapies

 

Contingency Management:

 

 

Token Economy:

 

 

Participant Modeling:

 

Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy:

 

 

Cognitive Therapy: Emphasizes rational thinking as the key to treating mental disorder

The client is capable of becoming aware of his or her own thoughts and of changing them

 

Cognitive therapy for depression involves

Evaluating evidence

Situational factors

Alternative solutions

 

 

Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy: (REBT)  Albert Ellis’s brand of therapy

            --Based on idea that irrational thoughts and behaviors are the cause of mental disorders

            --Focuses on beliefs about the event as well as the event…many people have irrational beliefs

                  Ex: the irrational belief that we must be highly competent, achieving, successful, etc…

 

Different Therapeutic techniques are effective for different disorders

 

Behavior Therapies: specific phobias, bedwetting, autism, alcoholism

 

Cognitive –Behavioral Therapies: chronic pain, anorexia, bulimia, agoraphobia

 

Insight Therapies: relationship/marriage problems

 

Depression is best treated with a variety of therapies

 

Active Listener:

 

 

 

How Effective Is Therapy?

--No clear answer

--Eysenck claims two-thirds of clients would improve without therapy, though studies show he overestimated the

      improvement rate in his no-therapy control group.

--According to studies, some therapy is better than none

--Problems is which therapy is best for each disorder

 

 

How is the Biomedical Approach used to treat psychological disorders?

Core Concept: Biomedical therapies seek to treat psychological disorders by ..

    1. changing the brain’s chemistry with drugs

    2. changing the brain’s circuitry with surgery

    3. changing the brain’s patterns of activity with pulses of electricity or powerful magnetic fields

 

 

 

Psychopharmacology

 

Psychopharmacology:

 

 

  --Ensures that clients are more receptive to talk therapy

  --Emerged from the medical model of treatment

 

 

 

 

 

1. Antipsychotic Drugs: Medicines that diminish psychotic symptoms…agitation, delusions, hallucinations

        -- Diminish psychotic symptoms usually by their effect on dopamine pathways in the brain

        --Example: Clozril

 

        DOWNSIDE:    Tardive Dyskinesia:

 

    Tardive Dyskinesia

 

2. Antidepressant Drugs: Medicines usually used to treat depression,,,

         Also those with eating disorders, panic attacks, obsessive-compulsive disorders, social phobias

          --Effect the serotonin and/or norepinepherine pathways in the brain   

          --Examples: prozac.

          ---May take weeks to get to therapeutic levels

 

 

Drugs used to treat depression usually fall in TWO types:         MAO’s  and  SSRIs

1. MAOs: monoamine oxidase inhibitors    

     Monoamine oxidase…inhibitors that block the activity of an enzyme that breaks down serotonin

 

2. SSRIs: selective serotonin reuptake initiators

 

 

    Lithium Carbonate: mood stabilizer             --Effective for bipolar disorder

 

3. Anti-Anxiety Drugs: Drugs used to diminish feelings of anxiety

         --Include barbiturates and benzodiazepines

 

         Stimulants:

 

    --But are found to suppress activity levels in clients with ADHD

 

Medical Therapies

 

Psychosurgery:

 

 

Prefrontal Lobotomy: largely discontinued in U.S….firs brought to U.S. in 1930’s

    Pick like instrument  severs the nerve pathways that link the prefrontal lobes to the thalamus

 

Electroconvulsion Therapy: (ECT) Application of electric current to the head, producing a

                generalized seizure

    --Primarily used to treat depression

    --Sometimes called ‘shock treatment’

    --Side Effects: memory problems

 

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: (TMS)  Involves magnetic stimulation of specific regions of the brain

   --Newer type of treatment

   --Does not produce a seizure

 

Therapeutic Community: Maxwell Jones’s term for a program of treating mental disorders by

                                             making the institutional environment supportive and humane for clients

 

Community Mental Health Movement: movement to deinstitutionalize clients

 

Deinstitutionalize:

 

 

 

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